Images

Silk of Antiplauria urichi on tree bark in Trinidad Silk of Antiplauria urichi on tree bark in Trinidad. The silk galleries form tunnels through which embiids move back and forth from their resting places to their feeding sites at the periphery of the silk. They graze on lichens and algae that grow profusely in the tropical habitat shown here. (Photo: J. Edgerly-Rooks)
Painting of woodcreeper and Bay-headed tanager at silk of Antipaluria urichi in Trinidad Painting of woodcreeper and Bay-headed tanager at silk of Antipaluria urichi in Trinidad. These birds have been seen tearing into embiid silk in their search for prey. (Painting: E. Rooks)
Gecko with female embiid Gecko with female embiid (A. urichi). Embiids rarely leave their galleries, but when they do they can encounter predators such as this. Spiders, ants, neuroptera larvae and others are known to catch and kill embiids outside their galleries. (Photo: J. Edgerly-Rooks)
Antipaluria urichi is attacked by many predators and parasites including this aculeate wasp Antipaluria urichi is attacked by many predators and parasites including this aculeate wasp (Sclerogibbidae). The wasp is ectoparasitic attacking embiid nymphs, paralizing them temporarally and laying an egg on the thorax. The egg hatches and the larva feeds on the nymph from the ouside. Male wasps are winged, but females (like the one pictured here) are wingless. They have strong front legs. (Photo: J. Edgerly-Rooks)
Female embiids Most adult female embiids move very quickly when outside the gallery. In this picture can be seen the large front tarsi that are filled with silk glands. Adult females are very similar in form to the nymphs, a characteristic of the order. (Photo: J. Edgerly-Rooks)
Female Antiplauria urichi spinning silk near egg mass Female Antiplauria urichi spinning silk near egg mass. Silk is excreted from glands in the front legs indicated by the arrow. (Photo: J. Edgerly-Rooks)
Male and female A. urichi in combat Male and female A. urichi often engage in combat, as shown here. Females will attack especially when guarding an egg mass. Males are winged and are short-lived after maturing. Females live many months with her nymphs. (Photo: J. Edgerly-Rooks)
Australian embiids with wingless males Many Australian embiids have wingless males as shown here. These embiids live in leaflitter. (Photo: J. Edgerly-Rooks)
Notoligotoma hardyi (Photo: J. Edgerly-Rooks)
Notoligotoma hardyi silk on lichens on Magnetic Island, Australia Notoligotoma hardyi silk on lichens on Magnetic Island, Australia. This species is a lichen-specialist. (Photo: J. Edgerly-Rooks)