||Silk of Antiplauria urichi
on tree bark in Trinidad. The silk galleries form
tunnels through which embiids move back and forth
from their resting places to their feeding sites
at the periphery of the silk. They graze on lichens
and algae that grow profusely in the tropical
habitat shown here. (Photo: J. Edgerly-Rooks)
||Painting of woodcreeper and Bay-headed tanager
at silk of Antipaluria urichi in Trinidad.
These birds have been seen tearing into embiid
silk in their search for prey. (Painting: E. Rooks)
||Gecko with female embiid (A. urichi).
Embiids rarely leave their galleries, but when
they do they can encounter predators such as this.
Spiders, ants, neuroptera larvae and others are
known to catch and kill embiids outside their
galleries. (Photo: J. Edgerly-Rooks)
||Antipaluria urichi is attacked by many
predators and parasites including this aculeate
wasp (Sclerogibbidae). The wasp is ectoparasitic
attacking embiid nymphs, paralizing them temporarally
and laying an egg on the thorax. The egg hatches
and the larva feeds on the nymph from the ouside.
Male wasps are winged, but females (like the one
pictured here) are wingless. They have strong
front legs. (Photo: J. Edgerly-Rooks)
||Most adult female embiids move very quickly
when outside the gallery. In this picture can
be seen the large front tarsi that are filled
with silk glands. Adult females are very similar
in form to the nymphs, a characteristic of the
order. (Photo: J. Edgerly-Rooks)
||Female Antiplauria urichi spinning silk near
egg mass. Silk is excreted from glands in the
front legs indicated by the arrow. (Photo: J.
||Male and female A. urichi often engage
in combat, as shown here. Females will attack
especially when guarding an egg mass. Males are
winged and are short-lived after maturing. Females
live many months with her nymphs. (Photo: J. Edgerly-Rooks)
||Many Australian embiids have wingless males
as shown here. These embiids live in leaflitter.
(Photo: J. Edgerly-Rooks)
||(Photo: J. Edgerly-Rooks)
||Notoligotoma hardyi silk on lichens
on Magnetic Island, Australia. This species is
a lichen-specialist. (Photo: J. Edgerly-Rooks)